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Scientists: Their Promethean Contribution


By Desmond Tarrant

Ever since the beginning of our existence we have waged war upon each other. This has often been for religion, conquest, loot and plunder. Today, if we continue to behave like this, we can blow ourselves out of the Universe; statistically our absence would make little difference. However, at long last, we seem to be growing up. This may be seen in the thinking of modern scientists, their approach to the pursuit of scientific wisdom and their cooperation. Freeman Dyson summed up this dawning of intelligence as follows: The most useful contribution that scientists can make to the abolition of war has nothing to do with technology. The international community of scientists may help to abolish war by setting an example to the world of practical cooperation extending across barriers of nationality, language and culture. (Imagining Worlds, Cambridge, Harvard UP 1997). The Annals of The New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 866, 1998, deals directly with this. On p. 269 we find that scientists, through their international contacts, are almost always able to remain in touch with colleagues in other countries even when their countries are trying to destroy each other. Their scientific aims and methods mean that scientists can transcend or rise above the activities of their governments. This approach enables them to remain in peace while their countries are at war. We see this in many cases, e.g. contacts remained viable between academics and scientists in Israel and Palestine when this mutual "friendship" was barred by the authorities. In Russia physicists persuaded their governments that it was essential for them, the scientists, to keep in close touch with their opposite numbers in western countries. Conferences facilitate this across national, often hostile boundaries. Scientists believe that it is fully possible to use their methods of approach to problems which are related only indirectly to science. This is the famous impartial scientific method when one tries to fault one's own hypothesis – a civilised attitude indeed, as illustrated so well by such as Sir Karl Popper and Sir John Eccles who are responsible for some of the finest thinking ever done on this planet. Cooperation becomes an end in itself rising above politics. It was a group of American scientists who put together and introduced the ideas of "arms control". They were directly responsible for bringing these all-important ideas even to the Soviet Union. This group of valiant scientists managed to create a community aiming at international arms control which agreed on basic facts and had a common understanding of the relevant situation with solutions that they could all recommend. Their endeavours contributed directly to easing the conflict between East and West during the Cold War. American scientists helped greatly in solving the almost intractable problems between Israel and Egypt. These scientists were very pleased that their methods of working were so successful in these other important areas which were outside science itself. Thus they played a vital part in achieving peace. Scientists have been helping in many other ways as well. Their contributions vary greatly from contacts with small groups as in Oslo which brought about diplomatic negotiations between Palestinians and Israelis to great and lasting activities such as the now fifty year old Pugwash conferences. There have been brief encounters between the US and China with exchanges of scientists. Also, there has been large scale cooperation in space between the US and the USSR as well as in many other scientific disciplines. Good use of academics is made so that they help resolve conflicts with their great resourcefulness; scientists, with their flexibility and imagination, lead to new ways to help us to stop fighting each other. There is no one solution, the problems need many different kinds of approach. They help directly in simply making those responsible for waging wars think again and start new negotiations, to take that most important "first step" to build a bridge between warring participants.

Also, scientists often help governments to understand the technical aspects of problems in their foreign policies. This includes such problems as acid rain: Does acid rain in Canada originate in the USA? Is it possible technically to verify nuclear explosions reliably? Is there a scientific explanation for changing climates? In helping like this, the scientists often participate directly in negotiations. Scientists are experts; as such they do not often share in the making of policies. In addition, scientists play a most important role in helping to educate both the public and officialdom about scientific matters and the latent developments in our evolving understanding of the Universe and our roles within it. It is stated on p.279 that `conflict between people and nations is as old as human history.' However, this tendency is counterbalanced by the powerful and universal longing for peace. Today it is the scientists who not only have the wish for peace but are actually in a position to do something about it. The book concludes: Scientists do have the potential to be a constructive element in preventing conflict, in helping to reach peaceful settlements to end conflict and in monitoring peace agreements. So Society must give these key members of the Community all the help that it can. They really do make the difference between life and death for us all. In the process they help to modernise our religious awareness and, indeed, Christianity itself. This is seen very clearly in such important books as The Cosmic Blueprint by Paul Davies and The Frontiers of Complexity by Peter Coveney and Roger Highfield.

On the vital matter of global warming (p.256) scientists play the most important part of all. The penalty for not listening to scientists about this is the Death Sentence upon the plane Earth. ROMANTIC RENAISSANCE FOR THE 21ST CENTURY

Religion without science is blind, science without religion is lame'. Albert Einstein, (1879-1955)

Many things come in cycles, as proved by The Foundation for the Study of Cycles affiliated to the University of Pittsburgh. There is a 17.7 year cycle of wars. The foundation is pouring millions of dollars into finding cycles on earth synchronised with sun-spot cycles. These cycles affect literature and philosophy. The greatest ages are those which use the imagination like the 12th, 19th, and all being well, the 21st centuries. The 19th century saw the Romantic Revival of Wordsworth and Coleridge, as in The Lyrical Ballads of 1798, followed by Keats and Shelley; this was an age of great aspiration and profound insights into life and what it is all about. The 20th century has been an age of anxiety and analysis as we were forced to face facts and ask new questions, in an age of denial like that of John Donne in the 17th century. Its two greatest poets are usually regarded as T.S. Eliot and W.B. Yeats. T.S. Eliot was right: many of us are hollow men, head pieces filled with straw. He made us look at language much more closely. But, instead of mastering contemporary science, forming a new spiritual synthesis and going forward from there, T.S. Eliot regressed to the lap of Mother Church. This has failed to resolve the old contradiction of a good and omnipotent Creator who condones misery, paint, suffering and evil, being really a symbiotic union of God and the Devil, syntropy and entropy. As a result he became world-weary, not the hallmark of a major poet imbued with élan. W.B. Yeats was a genuine poet, but he said his poetry came from lust and anger; surely these are not the best sources for the greatest poetry? At the end, he said, `All that I have said and done now that I am old and ill turns into a question till I lie awake night after night and never get the answers right." In saying this, he spoke for his age, an age of nihilistic charlatanism, as, like hippies, we ran from responsibility, to leave us now, spiritually bankrupt. It was an age which believed in nothing and pretended to be what it ought to be, but isn't. Such humbug and hypocrisy, the cold dead hand of moral degeneracy is not the way to qualify for Heaven! As Wordsworth said in 1802. Milton! Thou shouldst be living at this hour ... But this cycle is turning at last as we find new answers to the latest questions about what life wants from us. We are doing this on the basis of the sciences. In the 20th century we increased our functional complexity, chiefly in war, essential for the later use of the imagination once more. Consequently culture is in the doldrums in the UK because so few here see the point, purpose and value of the latest scientific understanding of life, the basis of a new spiritual understanding for the 21st century. There is a fine book confirming this called The Third Culture (Simon & Schuster, NY). In the Daily Telegraph of the 30th September, 1995, were extracts from this, from many of the world's leading scientists including Professor Paul Davies, perhaps the best writer on science on either side of the Atlantic, with whom I correspond. The paper said, `On the brink of the 21st century who can we expect to answer the important questions facing mankind? A groundswell of opinion is proclaiming that science is the culture taking centre stage today and anyone unfamiliar with the revolutionary ideas thrown up in the last twenty years is a hopeless dinosaur.' Paul Davies added, `Few individuals in Britain make any attempt to understand science and clearly feel out of their depth with the issues. In 1998, this situation is now changing for the better. However, many short-sighted editors and publishers are still locked in the prison cell of the 20th century. The imagination offers the key to this cell for those who want to walk free. Coleridge believed that the exercise of the imagination, in the individual mind, was the echo of the exercise of the Creator's Imagination in the Act of Creation in the Universe as a whole. Shelley believed that only when we carry analysis right through to synthesis and understanding do we really exercise the imagination, the key to life, its aims and purpose. So we must first ask the right questions and then find the right answers using this vital imagination, that fusion of both head and heart which gives us what is ultimately mystic insight based on the facts. This enables us, like Wordsworth, to see into the life of things. Then the water flows again to refertilise the Waste Land. That is the task, the quest for the Holy Grail, we must now undertake. Fine scientists doing just this include Paul Davies and Angela Tilby of the BBC as in her splendid television series and book Science and the Soul. In a letter to me, Angela wrote that, `Poets who can deal with these subjects are ... rare and valuable.' Also, Edward C. Whitmont wrote in The Return of the Goddess (1983), `At the low point of a cultural development that has led us into the deadlock of scientific materialism, technological destructiveness, religious nihilism and spiritual impoverishment, a most astounding phenomenon has occurred.' A new mythologem is arising in our midst and asks to be integrated into our modern frame of reference ... at a time of dire need.' Using science imaginatively while trying to give pleasure and enjoyment to experience Aristotle's Catharsis - the reason for Artistic Creation - this is what I have tried to do in my 500 line epic Sunset or Sunrise? Or Paradise Found, with my 8000 introduction on `Writing a Poem and the Age of Romance'. Realism shows what is; Romance shows what ought to be. It erects signposts to show us the way ahead; this is a much greater achievement. Without the genuine spirit of romance we wither and die. That is a law of Nature. In Soul, An Introduction to the New Cosmology - Time, Consciousness and God (BBC Education), Angela Tilby wrote, `... Mechanistic reductionism ... has robbed the Western world of spiritual meaning for over three hundred years.' She concludes that, The cost has been a loss of spirituality and an alienation from nature, which many have felt deeply. Now the tide is turning." The Cosmic Blueprint by Paul Davies (Unwin Paperbacks) is at the forefront of scientific research. He was greatly pleased with my review of this in Philosophy Now. he shows how matter and energy have the ability to `self organise', that there are `organising principles' in Nature leading to higher levels of complexity or growth. He concludes that our presence here is fundamental not incidental, offering a `deep and satisfying basis for human dignity'. In organising it sown self awareness, the Universe gives powerful evidence that there is something going on behind it all. He says that the impression of design is overwhelming.

This design betokens a Designer.

It really does look as if the individual mind has its share of the Universal mind of the Creator and that the individual mind, the Self, the Soul, the ghost in the machine, interacts, in a form of dualism, with its own infinitely complex brain. The self is to the brain what the pilot is to his or her aircraft. When the aircraft, the brain, is no longer able to fly, the pilot is given a new one in which to continue his or her flight, journey, adventure across the universe and finally home to Heaven. E=MC2 means that there is nothing here but patterned energy; this proves Shakespeare right when he said, `We are such stuff as drams are made on.' In The Frontiers of Complexity, by Peter Coveney and Roger Highfield, The Search for Order in a Chaotic World (Faber & Faber 1995), we are told `Life is fundamentally independent of the medium in which it takes place.' The implications of this are stunning! This means that the Soul, the Self, the ghost in the machine, is fundamentally independent of the body containing. Life does indeed `go on'. The two scientific philosophers Sir Karl Popper and the great brain surgeon Sir John Eccles, in some of the finest thinking ever done on this planet, see the creative imagination as the highest level of the human performance, happening independently of the brain. It is the self-conscious mind exploring its own resources and immense potentialities. It appears to do this as an infinitely complex programmed computer. This computer is programmed by the immanent Maker, who has an infinite care and love for detail.

They ask the ultimate and primordial questions:

1. What does this personal conscious life mean? They answer: The evolution of the individual, his or her self-development and self-realisation.

2. How can I make the best of my life? They answer: By assisting in this self-realisation creatively by using the imagination.

3. What comes after death? They answer: Continuation in the Creator's universal imagination (both mind and emotion). If intellect makes word and words make intellect, the poet should put himself or herself at the forefront of the evolution of understanding. The poet blazes the trail to The Promised Land.

This is in accordance with Reincarnation, which was a fundamental world-wide belief before the Industrial Revolution brutalised it out of us, (see: The Elements of Reincarnation by A.J. Mann. Thus the inmost Self, the Soul, appears to survive death to achieve a life beyond our present ken, beyond our wildest dreams. Our life here is thus a wonderful, exciting and challenging journey, an ocean voyage, with meaning to be discovered and salvation to be achieved. We must climb Jacob's ladder. As Verdi said, `Love is the heartbeat of the universe.' `No Creator who loves his creations would want to destroy them or prevent their full Self Realisation as we seed and colonise the universe, maybe one of many, throughout our eternity. This gives us all once again a sense of purpose and direction as we achieve ever greater understanding, happiness, and self-fulfilment. Doing this in the company of our other halves, what more could we ask or desire?

The Shakespeare Invention. The life and deaths of Christopher Marlowe: by Peter Zenner

Country Books, 2000 (Tel/fax: 01629 640670) ISBN 189841327 £19.99 By Desmond Tarrant

Peter Zenner tackles the stupendous task of proving that our greatest national poet, William Shakespeare, the world's greatest poet, was not the author of the plays and sonnets. I think he proves fully that, in fact, it was Christopher Marlowe who did all this. The general, widely held belief is well described by Sir Walter Raleigh in his excellent book Shakespeare, 1907, in which he writes: Shakespeare's characters of women ... take us into a world unknown to his master Marlowe, with whom women are prizes or dreams. On p.65 we find: Marlowe, his master in the drama, he has honoured in the most unusual fashion by direct quotation: Dead shepherd, now I find thy saw of might: `Who ever loved that loved not at first sight?' As Marlowe is Shakespeare, this quote has an added interest. In Christopher Marlowe. A study of his thought, learning and character. 1946 (p.122), Paul H. Kocher writes: It is one thing to give an occasional airing to the Jewish point of view by way of a realistic drawing of character, as Shakespeare does with Shylock, and quite another thing to afford it frequent, powerful, and often uncontested expression, as Marlowe does through his hero. In his introduction to Marlowe's greatest early play Dr Faustus, A.H. Sleight wrote in 1958: ... full as his plays are of memorable scenes and haunting passages, he would never have equalled Shakespeare, whose calm-eyed moral vision and whose universality Marlowe lacked. All this has to go overboard! The true situation seems to be: There were three men involved: 1. a certain William Shakespeare who lived in Stratford. This Shakespeare had no real education where Marlowe went to University and was well-travelled. He wrote nothing more memorable than a few signatures. This Shakespeare became a prosperous businessman dealing in grain, land and property. This Shakespeare was not an actor nor a playwright. But his name was to become very useful to Marlowe and Marlowe's publisher, Richard Feld. 2. There was a William Shakeshaft, the third son of a butcher, who came from Lancashire. He was a tutor and an actor. At the lucrative bidding of Marlowe and Feld, Shakeshaft called himself William Shakespeare. Peter Zenner calls this William Shakespeare, the London man. In Sonnets 36 and 37, Marlowe says he and his publisher have to co-operate with Shakeshaft who becomes responsible for Marlowe's output as Marlowe cannot write under his own name now. Peter Zenner has dug out the truth about all this in a very fine piece of detective work indeed. William Shakespeare of Stratford was not a writer of plays, not a poet, and not an actor. His name was taken as a nom-de-plume by Shakeshaft when Marlowe had to hide his, Marlowe's, real identity. Marlowe got into trouble and had to disappear. When he went into exile, in 1593, aged 29, he was wanted by the authorities. He had been charged with blasphemy and sodomy, both punishable by death. As a spy, he had very influential friends including the Chancellor, Lord Burghley. His death was faked and he went into hiding. Thus the Shakespeare Invention was a Trinity: the name (William Shakespeare of Stratford) and William Shakeshaft, the front man who acted in London and who adopted the name of William Shakespeare, and Marlowe himself. Peter Zenner writes (p.316): It will surprise many people, when they find out that our national poet was a half-blind, lame, homosexual, retired spy, who lived in exile half of his life - supposedly dead! Thus Christopher Marlowe perpetrated the greatest literary hoax ever! He experimented deliberately with different styles of writing, as the earlier Marlowe and then as Shakespeare. This is difficult to do especially when the style is based on a fast flowing stream of inspiration. But he did it as we see from Sonnet 76. A Professor from Cambridge said to Peter Zenner, `If Marlowe wrote Shakespeare, then who wrote Marlowe? They were definitely written by two different people.' Peter Zenner writes Marlowe `convinced people at the time that he was "twain" ... and they still believe it!' Sonnet 99 is relevant here: ...thou teachest how to make one twain ... Also the problem of the notorious Dark Lady seems to have been solved at last. She was Lucy Stanley, third daughter of the 7th Earl of Northumberland; she had seven illegitimate children. Marlowe had a child by Lucy called Venetia, the eighth and last example of `The Bastard Shame' referred to in the Sonnets. In Italian, Venetia means Phoenix, the name of Marlowe himself, the poet who rose from the ashes to a new life as William Shakespeare. Later, he had incest with Venetia and wanted to marry her. His own daughter! Thus, this research supersedes such interpretations as made by, eg. Anthony Burgess in his Shakespeare (1970). On p.90 of this we find: Shakespeare's art did not develop out of Marlowe's. They were temperamentally too different Also (pages 129, 130, 131): Who was the Dark Lady? ... The woman is best thought of as anonymous, an instrument of elemental pleasure, then remorse. To `Shakespeare' she was indeed `as black as hell, as dark as night,' (Sonnet 47) but, surely, Marlowe's feelings were deeper, stronger than Anthony Burgess here implies. The publisher of this excellent book - sensational in the best sense - is Richard T. Richardson. He has had three enquiries from television companies about documentaries; the Marlowe Society in the USA are interested in a film script. So we should all be hearing much more about Christopher Marlowe. The world is going to have to think again, and fundamentally, about this. The Droeshout engraving of `Shakespeare' seems to be definitely of Christopher Marlowe. This is familiar from the First Folio. If this is Marlowe at 58 then we are not so far from calm-eyed moral vision and universality after all. On p.61 we read that two Danish students enrolled at Padua University on 28th March, 1596. They were called Rosencrantz and Guildenstern! In the Epilogue to his farewell, The Tempest (written in 1611 and published in 1623), Christopher Marlowe alias William Shakespeare, wrote Gentle breath of yours my sails Must fill, or else my project fails, Which was to please ... In this, Marlowe graduates to Prospero and Venetia to Miranda, a fitting culmination for both. In spite of some infelicities of expression in it, readers will surely delight in the rich feast this fine book offers them.


"Pilgrim, pilgrimage and way are but myself toward myself". - Farid Ud-Din Attar

If we want to know the point and purpose of life we must turn to the findings of Depth Psychology.

No grasp of modern thought is complete without an understanding of this. It is based not on Freud, whose findings were rooted in an analysis of individuals, but on the magnificent pioneer work of Carl Jung, extended and consolidated by Erich Neumann, late President of the Israel Association of Analytical Psychologists, as in Neumann's greatest seminal work The Origins and History of Consciousness (Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., London, Princeton paperback, 1970). Erich Neumann was a native of Germany who had to flee from the Nazis. He worked with Jung at Zurich and later went to Tel Aviv, where he died in 1960. In the book's Foreword, Jung writes of Erich Neumann:

"...he has succeeded in constructing a unique history of the evolution of consciousness, and at the same time in representing the body of myths as the phenomenology of this same evolution."

A chief contribution to Depth Psychology is Neumann's concept of "centroversion".

"Centroversion is the innate tendency of a whole to create unity within its parts and to synthesize their differences in unified systems."

He shows that the individual consciousness develops through the same archetypal stages of development that mark the history of human consciousness as a whole. World myths give the key to this development.

Part One deals with these mythological stages; They begin with the Creation Myth. At first we have perfection, wholeness, symbolised by the snake Uroborus; mouth to tail; world and psyché are still one with, as yet, no reflecting, self-conscious ego. The coming of light is a chief aim; light is opposed to the darkness of the unconscious.

A chief symbol of original perfection is the circle, along with the sphere and the egg. Plato, in Timaeus, illustrates this:

"Therefore the demiurge made the world in the shape of a sphere...the most perfect and the most equal to itself".

The "round" of mythology is also the womb. The uroborus of the maternal world is life and psyché in one. It supplies nourishment, pleasure, protection, warmth and comfort; it is the refuge of humanity as the Mother fulfils, bestows and helps. Worship of the Great Mother is a major aspect of this initial state of Paradise. Whenever the harmful aspect of the Great Mother is paramount or counterbalances her positive and creative aspect the uroborus is still operating in the background. the adolescent stage has not been overcome and the ego is not yet independent from the apron-strings - a dangerous situation.

Narcissus is a victim of Aphrodite, the Great Mother. His embryo ego is overpowered by the fatal love over which she rules. That she operates through his reflection, as his plenty makes him poor, only illustrates her treacherousness. The masculine principle must become strong enough to achieve consciousness of itself - no longer just the satellite son of the maternal uroborus, chained to the almighty unconscious. The youth must become independent, capable of standing alone even if this means exchanging some home truths with parents.

The next stage is the separation of the World Parents as the youth matures. Consciousness is strengthened further through taboos (which must be broken at times) and moral attitudes replacing unwitting impulse by knowing or conscious action. The presiding centre of conscious action through the will, and of conscious knowledge through learning, is now the ego.

This process is accomplished by those individuals who are differentiated, individualised - their own men - as they become representative bearers of the group's consciousness, the leaders.

The immortal soul of the divine king Osiris becomes the immortal soul of each and every Egyptian just as Jesus, the Saviour, becomes the Christ-soul of every Christian, the Self within.

The story of the hero, embodied in myths, is the history of the freeing of this ego as it fights to emancipate itself from the power of the unconscious, to hold its own against overwhelming odds. It is a thrilling and dramatic conflict, on which hinges the fate of humankind.

With the birth of the hero, his total personality has detached itself from the world and the unconscious. The stages of the Hero Myth represent the stages in the personal development of every individual, however feebly and distantly.

By mastering the masculine and feminine aspect of himself and consolidating an inner core of personality, the hero completes a pattern of evolution, Carl Jung's "individuation".

When the hero identifies himself with the masculine "heaven" he is ready, like St George, to take on the dragon. All heroes are "god-begotten". Help from above, the feeling that God is on his side, makes possible the battle with the dragon of the Great Mother. He upholds the spiritual world, becoming the liberator, the saviour, the innovator, the bringer of wisdom and culture.

The mythological fate of the hero portrays all conscious development as the sleepwalkers awake to conscious understanding. The stages are repeated in every human being, although, through weakness, the development may be arrested at any stage and even lead to regression.

The chief or basic elements in the Hero Myth are the birth of the hero, the dragon fight and the treasure as he slays the parents symbolically in the process of finding himself.

What is the goal of the dragon fight? It involves the maiden-in-distress and the treasure which is so hard for the Prince to find. It is in this struggle that, fighting for his soul, the hero proves he is a hero in a process of self-transformation.

The aim of the dragon fight is nearly always the virgin, and the treasure. In early myths, religion and ritual, in fairy tales and in poetry, gold, precious stones and chaste pearls signified the spiritual values essential for success. Similarly, the elixir of immortality, the philosopher's stone, miracle rings, the water of life, magic cloaks, swords and shields all signify the treasure of understanding.

The fight to capture and free the partner, the Princess, embodies the hero's fight for his soul, his Psyché. Successful union with her is the desired outcome of dragon fights all over the world. The conquests of monsters and enemies - the cruel and therefore short-sighted - lead to the hero's triumphal union with the Earth Goddess which, through magic, restores the fertility of the year, rebirth in the spring, and resurrection.

The development of the personality is threefold. First there is adaptation to the outside world, extraversion. Second is inward adaptation to the psyché and archetypes, or introversion. Third is centroversion, or individuation within the psyché itself. This is independent of the other two.

The extravert is a heroic man of action. The introvert frees, through culture and ideas exalting values as wisdom, the water of life. For the third type of hero, self-transformation is the goal in a natural basic trend of his psyché, self-transformation from mortal to god achieving the Holy Grail of eternal life.

Thus the hero myth becomes the myth of self-transformation with one's partner, the story of man's divine sonship, latent from the beginning but brought to fruition only through the valiant union of ego with self and psyche. The hero's immortal soul becomes the property or part of every individual.

The archetypal stages of conscious development involve transfiguration, the individuation of modern man.

Now comes something new: consciousness turns inward to become aware of the Self. Ego revolves around this in the pursuit of identity without alienation. This begins the assimilation of the unconscious into modern consciousness, especially with the sciences. There is a shift of emphasis from the ego, with its thrust to power in creating a niche for itself within society, to the Self. This is the latest stage in the evolution of human consciousness.

The human wins the crown of gold instead of thorns and the indestructible heart of diamond. Battling against disintegration and the bad, self-destructive elements of the old order, the hero conquers fear. He dares the evolutionary leap to the next stage refusing to cling to the conservatism of the old and outworn. In the process he turns fear into joy. He has fought for and won his psyche, his anima, his soul. He goes beyond martyrdom and crucifixion to resurrection. Centroversion has been achieved.

Erich Neumann notes that, in this time of spiritual and social crisis, Western man is moving steadily towards the emancipation of man from nature and consciousness from the unconscious. He concludes:

"A future humanity will then realise the centre, which the individual personality today experiences as his own self centre, to be one with humanity's very self, whose coming to birth will finall